Practice Based Research

Practice Based Research

Literature Review

Welcome to the Primary Care Behavioral Health Innovation Center’s Research Hub–a great resource for the latest research on the PCBH Model. The PIC wants scientific research to help guide future PCBH development.

Research is listed according to the part of the Quadruple Aim it corresponds to:

Published Reviews of the PCBH Model

Patient outcomes associated with primary care behavioral health services: A systematic review

Possemato, K., Johnson, E. M., Beehler, G. P., Shepardson, R. L., King, P., Vair, C. L., Funderburk, J. S., Maisto, S. A., & Wray, L. O. (2018). Patient outcomes associated with primary care behavioral health services: A systematic review. General hospital psychiatry, 53, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2018.04.002

Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) Model Research: Current State of the Science and a Call to Action

Hunter, C.L., Funderburk, J.S., Polaha, J. et al. (2018). Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) Model Research: Current State of the Science and a Call to Action. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 25, 127–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-017-9512-0

Research papers listed meet certain eligibility requirements:

    • Only empirical, published, peer-reviewed works
    • BH services delivered in primary care
    • BH services were available to all patients (even if the study reported on just a subset)
    • Patients were typically seen for 30 min or less
    • The service explicitly involves at least two features of GATHER

OR

The study was included in the Hunter et al. (2017) or the Possemato et al. (2018) published literature review of the PCBH model.

Patient Experience

Angantyr, K., Rimner, A., Norden, T. & Norlander, T. (2015). Primary Care Behavioral Health model: Perspectives of outcome, client satisfaction, and gender. Social Behavior and Personality, 43(2), 287-302. http://www.sbp-journal.com/index.php/sbp/article/view/4323

Ayalon L, Arean PA, Linkins K, Lynch M, Estes CL. (2007). Integration of mental health services into primary care overcomes ethnic disparities in access to mental health services between black and white elderly. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(10):906–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e318135113e. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e318135113e

Bohnert KM, Pfeiffer PN, Szymanski BR, McCarthy JF. (2013). Continuation of care following an initial primary care visit with a mental health diagnosis: differences by receipt of VHA primary care-mental health integration services. General Hospital Psychiatry, 35(1):66–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2012.09.002. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2013-02122-003

Bohnert KM, Sripada RK, Mach J, McCarthy JF. (2016). Same-day integrated mental health care and PTSD diagnosis and treatment among VHA primary care patients with positive PTSD screens. Psychiatric Services, 67(1):94–100. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1176/appi.ps.201500035. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26423103/

Brawer PA, Brugh AM, Martielli RP, et al. (2011). Enhancing entrance into PTSD treatment for post-deployment veterans through collaborative/integrative care. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 1(4):609–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13142-011-0097-0. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24073084/

Bridges, A. J., Andrews, A. R., Villalobos, B. T., Pastrana, F. A., Cavell, T. A., & Gomez, D. (2014). Does integrated behavioral health care reduce mental health disparities for Latinos? Initial findings. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 2, 37-53. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25309845/

Bryan, C. J., Corso, K. A., Corso, M. L., Kanzler, K. E., Ray-Sannerud, B., & Morrow, C. E. (2012). Therapeutic alliance and change in suicidal ideation during treatment in integrated primary care settings. Archives of Suicide Research, 16, 316-323. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13811118.2013.722055

Corso, K. A., Bryan, C. J., Corso, M. L., Kanzler, K. E., Houghton, D. C., Ray-Sannerud, B., & Morrow, C. E. (2012). Therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in the primary care behavioral health model. Families, Systems & Health, 30(2), 87-100. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2012-15969-001

Davis D, Corrin-Pendry S, Savill M. (2008). A follow-up study of the long-term effects of counseling in a primary care counseling psychology service. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 8(2):80–4. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14733140802007863

Davis MJ, Moore KM, Meyers K, Mathews J, Zerth EO. (2016). Engagement in mental health treatment following primary care mental health integration contact. Psychological Services, 13(4):333–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000089. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2016-26323-001

Ede V, Okafor M, Kinuthia R, et al. (2015). An examination of perceptions in integrated care practice. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(8):949–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-015-9837-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4771375/

Funderburk, J. S., Fielder, R. L., DeMartini, K. S., & Flynn, C. A. (2012). Integrating behavioral health services into a university health centers: Patient and provider satisfaction. Families, Systems & Health, 30, 130-140. http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0028378

Funderburk, J. S., Sugarman, D. E., Maisto, S. A., Ouimette, P., Schohn, M., Lantinga, L., … Strutynski, K. (2010). The description and evaluation of the implementation of an integrated healthcare model. Families, Systems & Health, 28, 146-160. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2010-15711-007

Horevitz E, Organista KC, Arean PA. (2015). Depression treatment uptake in integrated primary care: how a “warm handoff” and other factors affect decision making by Latinos. Psychiatric Services, 66(8):824–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201400085. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ps.201400085

Kessler, R. (2012). Mental health care treatment initiation when mental health services are incorporated into primary care practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 25, 255–259. http//www.jabfm.org/content/25/2/255.full

Krahn DD, Bartels SJ, Coakley E, et al. (2006). PRISM-E: comparison of integrated care and enhanced specialty referral models in depression outcomes. Psychiatric Services, 57(7):946–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ps.2006.57.7.946. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/ps.2006.57.7.946

Landis SE, Barrett M, Galvin SL. (2013). Effects of different models of integrated collaborative care in a family medicine residency program. Fam Syst Health, 31(3):264–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033410. http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0033410

Ogbeide, S. A., Landoll, R. R., Nielsen, M. K., & Kanzler, K. E. (2018). To go or not go: Patient preference in seeking specialty mental health versus behavioral consultation within the primary care behavioral health consultation model. Families, systems & health : the journal of collaborative family healthcare, 36(4), 513–517. https://doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000374. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30307267/

Pfeiffer PN, Szymanski BR, Zivin K, Post EP, Valenstein M, McCarthy JF. (2011). Are primary care mental health services associated with differences in specialty mental health clinic use? Psychiatric Services, 62(4):422–5. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1176/ps.62.4.pss6204_0422. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/ps.62.4.pss6204_0422

Pomerantz A, Cole BH, Watts BV, Weeks WB. (2008). Improving efficiency and access to mental health care: combining integrated care and advanced access. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30(6):546–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. genhosppsych.2008.09.004. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19061681/

Runyan, C., Fonseca, V.P., Meyer, J.G., Oordt, M.S., & Talcott, G.W. (2003). A novel approach for mental health disease management: The Air Force Medical Service’s interdisciplinary model. Disease Management, 6(3), 179-187. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14570386/

Szymanski BR, Bohnert KM, Zivin K, McCarthy JF. (2012). Integrated care: treatment initiation following positive depression screens. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(3):346–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-012-2218-y. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32495097/

Tsan JY, Zeber JE, Stock EM, Sun F, Copeland LA. (2012). Primary care-mental health integration and treatment retention among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. Psychological Services, 9(4):336–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028308. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2012-10754-001. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2012-10754-001

Villalobos BT, Bridges AJ, Anastasia EA, Ojeda CA, Rodriguez JH, Gomez D. (2016). Effects of language concordance and interpreter use on therapeutic alliance in Spanish speaking integrated behavioral health care patients. Psychological Services, 13(1):49–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000051. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26349073/

Watts BV, Shiner B, Pomerantz A, Stender P, Weeks WB. (2007). Outcomes of a quality improvement project integrating mental health into primary care. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 16(5):378–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2007.022418. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17913780/

Population Health (Patient Outcomes)

Angantyr, K., Rimner, A., Norden, T. & Norlander, T. (2015). Primary Care Behavioral Health model: Perspectives of outcome, client satisfaction, and gender. Social Behavior and Personality, 43(2), 287-302. http://www.sbp-journal.com/index.php/sbp/article/view/4323

Bartels SJ, Coakley EH, Zubritsky C, et al. (2004). Improving access to geriatric mental health services: a randomized trial comparing treatment engagement with integrated versus enhanced referral care for depression, anxiety, and at-risk alcohol use. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(8):1455–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi. ajp.161.8.1455. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15285973/

Begley CE, Hickey JS, Ostermeyer B, et al. (2008). Integrating behavioral health and primary care: the Harris County community behavioral health program. Psychiatry Services, 59(4):356–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ps.2008.59.4.356. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-17448-017

Brawer, P.A., Martielli, R., Pye, P.L., Manwaring, J. & Tierney, A. (2010). St. Louis Initiative for Integrated Care Excellence (SLICE): Integrated-Collaborative care on a large scale model. Families, Systems & Health, 28(2), 175-187. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20695674/

Bridges, A. J., Andrews, A. R., Villalobos, B. T., Pastrana, F. A., Cavell, T. A., & Gomez, D. (2014). Does integrated behavioral health care reduce mental health disparities for Latinos? Initial findings. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 2, 37-53. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25309845/

Bridges, A. J., Gregus, S. J., Hernandez Rodriques, J., Andrews, A. R., Billalobos, B. T., Pastrana, F. A., & Cavell, T. A. (2015). Diagnoses, intervention strategies, and rates of functional improvement in integrated behavioral health care patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 590-601. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25774786/

Bryan CJ, Corso KA, Rudd MD, & Cordero L. (2008). Improving identification of suicidal patients in primary care through routine screening. Primary Care and Community Psychiatry, 13(4), 143-147. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2009-00551-001

Bryan, C. J., Corso, K. A., Kanzler, K. E., Corso, M. L., Morrow, C. E., & Ray-Sannerud, B. (2012). Severity of mental health impairment and trajectories of improvement in and integrated  primary care clinic. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 80, 396–403. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22428939/

Bryan, C. J., Morrow, C., & Appolonio, K. K. (2009). Impact of behavioral health consultant interventions on patient symptoms and functioning in an integrated family medicine clinic. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(3), 281-293. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2009-02316-005

Buckheit, Katherine & Barden, Eileen & Possemato, Kyle & Mastroleo, Nadine & Rauch, Sheila. (2022). Primary Care Treatment Integrating Motivation and Exposure for PTSD Symptoms and Hazardous Alcohol Use: A Case Series. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2022.02.020

Cigrang, J. A., Dobmeyer, A. C., Becknell, M. E., Roa-Navarrete, R. A, & Yerian S. R. (2006). Evaluation of a collaborative mental health program in primary care: Effects on patient distress and health care utilization. Primary Care and Community Psychiatry, 11, P1-P7. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jeff-Cigrang/publication/233665740_Evaluation_of_a_collaborative_mental_health_program_in_primary_care_Effects_on_patient_distress_and_health_care_utilization/links/54ec87780cf27fbfd770f2aa/Evaluation-of-a-collaborative-mental-health-program-in-primary-care-Effects-on-patient-distress-and-health-care-utilization.pdf

Cigrang, J. A., Rauch, S. A. M., Mintz, J., Brundige, A., Avila, L. L., Bryan, C. J., . . . & Peterson, A. L. (2015). Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: a follow-up report. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 36, 110-114. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0887618515300268

Cigrang, J.A., Mintz, J.M., Najera, E., Young-McCaughan, S.Y, Roache, J.D., Goodie, J.L., Peterson, A.L., Rauch, S.A., Mitchell, J.A., Litz, B.T., Hembree, E.A. & Sonnek, S.M. (2017). Moving effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder to primary care: A randomized controlled trial with active duty military. Families, Systems & Health, 35(4), 450-62. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-56601-005

Cigrang, J.A., Rauch, S.A., Avila, L.L., Bryan, C.J., Goodie, J.L., Hryshko-Mullen, A., Peterson, A.L., & STRONG STAR Consortium (2011). Treatment of Active-Duty Military with PTSD in Primary Care: Early Findings. Psychological Services, 8 (2), 104-113. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2011-07317-001

Corso, K. A., Bryan, C. J., Morrow, C. E., Appolonio, K. K., Dodendorf, D. M., & Baker, M. T. (2009). Managing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in active-duty military personnel in primary care settings. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 31(2), 119-136. http://meridian.allenpress.com/jmhc/article-abstract/31/2/119/83369/Managing-Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder-Symptoms-in

Davis D, Corrin-Pendry S, Savill M. (2008). A follow-up study of the long-term effects of counseling in a primary care counseling psychology service. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 8(2):80–4. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14733140802007863

Davis MJ, Moore KM, Meyers K, Mathews J, Zerth EO. (2016). Engagement in mental health treatment following primary care mental health integration contact. Psychology Services, 13(4):333–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000089. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2016-26323-001

Dueweke, A.R., Bridges, A.J. Suicide Risk Assessment and Safety Planning in Integrated Primary Care Settings: Recommendations for Behavioral Health Consultants. J Health Serv Psychol 48, 133–139 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42843-022-00067-4. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42843-022-00067-4

Dueweke, A. R., Rojas, S. M., Anastasia, E. A., & Bridges, A. J. (2017). Can brief behavioral health interventions reduce suicidal and self-harm ideation in primary care patients?. Families, systems & health : the journal of collaborative family healthcare, 35(3), 376–381. https://doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000287. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28737411/

Felker, B. L., Barnes, R. F., Greenberg, D. M., Chaney, E. F., Shores, M. M., Gillespie-Gateley, L., … Morton, C. E. (2004). Preliminary outcomes from an integrated mental health primary care team. Psychiatric Services, 55, 442-444. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ps.55.4.442

Funderburk, J. S., Dobmeyer, A. C., Hunter, C. L., & Walsh, C. O. (2013). Provider practices in the primary care behavioral health (PCBH) model: An initial examination in the Veterans Health Administration and United States Air Force. Families, Systems & Health, 31, 341–353. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2013-45183-003

Funderburk, J. S., Pigeon, W. R., Shepardson, R. L., Wade, M., Acker, J., Fivecoat, H., Wray, L. O., & Maisto, S. A. (2021). Treating depressive symptoms among veterans in primary care: A multi-site RCT of brief behavioral activation. Journal of affective disorders, 283, 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.01.033. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33516082/

Gomez, D., Bridges, A. J., Andrews, A. R., Cavell, T. A., Pastrana, F. A., Gregus, S. J., Ojeda, C. A. (2014). Delivering parent management training in an integrated primary care setting: Description and preliminary outcome data. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 21, 296-309. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1077722914000455

Goodie, J., Isler, W., Hunter, C., & Peterson, A. (2009). Using behavioral health consultants to treat insomnia in primary care: A clinical case series. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 294-304. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jclp.20548

Kanzler, K. E., Robinson, P. J., McGeary, D. D., Mintz, J., Kilpela, L. S., Finley, E. P., McGeary, C., Lopez, E. J., Velligan, D., Munante, M., Tsevat, J., Houston, B., Mathias, C. W., Potter, J. S., & Pugh, J. (2022). Addressing chronic pain with Focused Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in integrated primary care: findings from a mixed methods pilot randomized controlled trial. BMC primary care, 23(1), 77. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-022-01690-2. https://bmcprimcare.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12875-022-01690-2

Katon, W., Robinson, P., Von Korff, M., Lin, E., Bush, T., Ludman, E.,… Walker, E. (1996). A multifaceted intervention to improve treatment of depression in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 924–932. http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/497660

Kolbasovsky A, Reich L, Romano I, Jaramillo B. (2005). Integrating behvaioral health into primary care settings: a pilot project. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(2):130–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.36.2.130. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2005-03020-002

Krahn DD, Bartels SJ, Coakley E, et al. (2006). PRISM-E: comparison of integrated care and enhanced specialty referral models in depression outcomes. Psychiatric Services, 57(7):946–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ps.2006.57.7.946. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16816278/

Landis SE, Barrett M, Galvin SL. (2013). Effects of different models of integrated collaborative care in a family medicine residency program. Families, Systems & Health, 31(3):264–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033410. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24059274/

Lanoye, A., Stewart, K. E., Rybarczyk, B. D., Auerbach, S. M., Sadock, E., Aggarwal, A., … Austin, K. (2016). The impact of integrated psychological services in a safety net primary care clinic on medical utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychology. doi:10.1002/ jclp.22367. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2016-39216-001

McFeature, B. (2012). Primary care behavioral health consultation reduces depression levels among mood-disordered patients. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 5, 36-44. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.685.8655&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Ogbeide, S. A., Young, A., Houston, B., & Knight, C. (2021). Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder with a Prolonged Exposure Protocol Within Primary Care Behavioral Health: A Case Example. Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, 28(3), 575–583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-020-09747-z. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33090302/

Pomerantz A, Cole BH, Watts BV, Weeks WB. (2008). Improving efficiency and access to mental health care: combining integrated care and advanced access. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30(6):546–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. genhosppsych.2008.09.004. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0163834308001655?via%3Dihub

Ray-Sannerud, B. N., Dolan, D. C., Morrow, C. E., Corso, K. A., Kanzler, K. E., Corso, M. L., & Bryan, C. J. (2012). Longitudinal outcomes after brief behavioral health intervention in an integrated primary care clinic. Families, Systems & Health, 30(1), 60-71. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22288398/

Rene, R., Cherson, M., Rannazzisi, A., Felter, J., Silverio, A., & Cunningham, A. T. (2022). Transitioning from In-Person to Telemedicine Within Primary Care Behavioral Health During COVID-19. Population health management, 10.1089/pop.2021.0292. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1089/pop.2021.0292. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35196130/

Sadock, E., Auerbach, S. M., Rybarczyk, B., & Aggarwal, A. (2014). Evaluation of integrated psychological services in a university-based primary care clinic.  Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 21, 19-32. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2013-38249-001

Serrano, N. & Monden, K. (2011). The effect of behavioral health consultation on the care of depression by primary care clinicians. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 110 (3), 113-118. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21748995/

Sheldrick, R. C., Bair-Merritt, M. H., Durham, M. P., Rosenberg, J., Tamene, M., Bonacci, C., Daftary, G., Tang, M. H., Sengupta, N., Morris, A., & Feinberg, E. (2022). Integrating Pediatric Universal Behavioral Health Care at Federally Qualified Health Centers. Pediatrics, 149(4), e2021051822. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2021-051822. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35347338/

Sripada, R. K., Walters, H. M., Ganoczy, D., Avallone, K. M., Cigrang, J. A., & Rauch, S. (2022). Feasibility and Acceptability of Prolonged Exposure in Primary Care (PE-PC) for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Federally Qualified Health Centers: A Pilot Study. Administration and policy in mental health, 1–13. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-022-01195-1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35445362/

Walter, H. J., Vernacchio, L., Correa, E. T., Bromberg, J., Goodman, E., Barton, J., Young, G. J., DeMaso, D. R., & Focht, G. (2021). Five-Phase Replication of Behavioral Health Integration in Pediatric Primary Care. Pediatrics, 148(2), e2020001073. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-001073. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34210739/

Walter, H. J., Vernacchio, L., Trudell, E. K., Bromberg, J., Goodman, E., Barton, J., Young, G. J., DeMaso, D. R., & Focht, G. (2019). Five-Year Outcomes of Behavioral Health Integration in Pediatric Primary Care. Pediatrics, 144(1), e20183243. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-3243. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31186366/

White, E. J., Wray, J. M., & Shepardson, R. L. (2020). Clinical considerations in designing brief exposure interventions for primary care behavioral health settings. Families, systems & health : the journal of collaborative family healthcare, 38(4), 439–449. https://doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000543. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33119371/

Wilfong, K. M., Goodie, J. L., Curry, J. C., Hunter, C. L., & Kroke, P. C. (2021). The Impact of Brief Interventions on Functioning Among those Demonstrating Anxiety, Depressive, and Adjustment Disorder Symptoms in Primary Care: The Effectiveness of the Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) Model. Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, 10.1007/s10880-021-09826-9. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-021-09826-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34626278/

Reducing Costs

Begley CE, Hickey JS, Ostermeyer B, et al. (2008). Integrating behavioral health and primary care: the Harris County community behavioral health program. Psychiatric Services, 59(4):356–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ps.2008.59.4.356. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18378830/

Brawer, P.A., Martielli, R., Pye, P.L., Manwaring, J. & Tierney, A. (2010). St. Louis Initiative for Integrated Care Excellence (SLICE): Integrated-Collaborative care on a large scale model. Families, Systems & Health, 28(2), 175-187. http://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20695674/

Felker, B. L., Barnes, R. F., Greenberg, D. M., Chaney, E. F., Shores, M. M., Gillespie-Gateley, L., … Morton, C. E. (2004). Preliminary outcomes from an integrated mental health primary care team. Psychiatric Services, 55, 442-444. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ps.55.4.442

Gouge, N., Polaha, J., Rogers, R., & Harden, A. (in press). Integrating behavioral health into pediatric primary care: Implications for provider time and cost. Southern Medical Journal, ##, pp-pp. http://europepmc.org/article/med/27911972

Landoll, R.R., Nielsen, M.K., Waggoner, K.K. & Najera, E. (in press). Innovations in primary care behavioral health: A pilot study across the U.S. Air Force. Translational Behavioral Medicine. http://academic.oup.com/tbm/article/9/2/266/4992907?login=true

Lanoye, A., Stewart, K. E., Rybarczyk, B. D., Auerbach, S. M., Sadock, E., Aggarwal, A., Waller, R., Wolver, S. and Austin, K. (2016). The Impact of Integrated Psychological Services in a Safety Net Primary Care Clinic on Medical Utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychology. doi:10.1002/jclp.22367. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jclp.22367

Maeng, D. D., Poleshuck, E., Rosenberg, T., Kulak, A., Mahoney, T., Nasra, G., Lee, H. B., & Li, Y. (2022). Primary Care Behavioral Health Integration and Care Utilization: Implications for Patient Outcome and Healthcare Resource Use. Journal of general internal medicine, 10.1007/s11606-021-07372-6. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-021-07372-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35132550/

Serrano, N. & Monden, K. (2011). The effect of behavioral health consultation on the care of depression by primary care clinicians. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 110 (3), 113-118. http://europepmc.org/article/med/21748995

Walter, H. J., Vernacchio, L., Trudell, E. K., Bromberg, J., Goodman, E., Barton, J., Young, G. J., DeMaso, D. R., & Focht, G. (2019). Five-Year Outcomes of Behavioral Health Integration in Pediatric Primary Care. Pediatrics, 144(1), e20183243. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-3243. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31186366/

Care Team Well-being (Provider Experience)

Cigrang, J. A., Dobmeyer, A. C., Becknell, M. E., Roa-Navarrete, R. A, & Yerian S. R. (2006). Evaluation of a collaborative mental health program in primary care: Effects on patient distress and health care utilization. Primary Care and Community Psychiatry, 11, P1-P7. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jeff-Cigrang/publication/233665740_Evaluation_of_a_collaborative_mental_health_program_in_primary_care_Effects_on_patient_distress_and_health_care_utilization/links/54ec87780cf27fbfd770f2aa/Evaluation-of-a-collaborative-mental-health-program-in-primary-care-Effects-on-patient-distress-and-health-care-utilization.pdf

Cos TA, Levkovich N, Tjoa CW, et al (2022). Integrated primary care behavioral health in a regional network of FQHC agencies during COVID-19. Integrated Healthcare Journal 2022;4:e000125. doi: 10.1136/ihj-2022-000125. https://ihj.bmj.com/content/4/1/e000125

Funderburk, J. S., Fielder, R. L., DeMartini, K. S., & Flynn, C. A. (2012). Integrating behavioral health services into a university health centers: Patient and provider satisfaction. Families, Systems & Health, 30, 130-140. http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0028378

Funderburk, J. S., Sugarman, D. E., Maisto, S. A., Ouimette, P., Schohn, M., Lantinga, L., … Strutynski, K. (2010). The description and evaluation of the implementation of an integrated healthcare model. Families, Systems & Health, 28, 146-160. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2010-15711-007

Gouge, N., Polaha, J., Rogers, R., & Harden, A. (in press). Integrating behavioral health into pediatric primary care: Implications for provider time and cost. Southern Medical Journal, ##, pp-pp. http://europepmc.org/article/med/27911972

Hill, J. (2015). Behavioral health integration: Transforming patient care, medical resident education, and physician effectiveness. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 50, 36-49. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0091217415592357

McFeature, B. (2012). Primary care behavioral health consultation reduces depression levels among mood-disordered patients. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 5, 36-44. http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=jhdrp

Serrano, N. & Monden, K. (2011). The effect of behavioral health consultation on the care of depression by primary care clinicians. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 110 (3), 113-118. http://europepmc.org/article/med/21748995

Walter, H. J., Kackloudis, G., Trudell, E. K., Vernacchio, L., Bromberg, J., DeMaso, D. R., & Focht, G. (2017). Enhancing Pediatricians’ Behavioral Health Competencies Through Child Psychiatry Consultation and Education. Clinical pediatrics, 57(8), 958–969. https://doi.org/10.1177/0009922817738330. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29082768/

Yin, I., Staab, E. M., Beckman, N., Vinci, L. M., Ari, M., Araújo, F. S., Yohanna, D., & Laiteerapong, N. (2021). Improving Primary Care Behavioral Health Integration in an Academic Internal Medicine Practice: 2-Year Follow-Up. American journal of medical quality : the official journal of the American College of Medical Quality, 36(6), 379–386. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JMQ.0000735472.47097.a1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33967190/

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Anthony LeonPractice Based Research

Who We Are

Vision

PIC strives to be the central hub for Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) resources. We aim to form a nationwide community of PCBH-engaged individuals, clinics, and systems to help develop a standardized understanding of the PCBH model, support high-fidelity practice of the model, and promote research and dissemination of the model.

PCBH Advisory Council

This group provides guidance and recommendations on the PCBH model and research to help inform PIC Strategic Leadership.

PIC Strategic Leadership

This group oversees Development, Management, expansion, and sustainability of the PCBH Innovation Center.

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Anthony LeonWho We Are

Contact PIC

Contact PIC

Please Fill Out This Form to Learn More About PCBH

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Anthony LeonContact PIC

PCBH Resources

PCBH Resource Hub

Stay Tuned!

This page will include resources advanced by practitioners and reviewed for relevance and fidelity to the PCBH model by PIC Strategic Leadership and Advisory Council.

All resources will be free for you to use in developing your PCBH services, with credit given to originating authors as listed on the document(s).

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Anthony LeonPCBH Resources

Practice Network

Practice Network

Are you a primary care clinic or system utilizing the Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) model? If so, we want to list you here on the PIC Geo-Map! Help us document where PCBH is being conducted by submitting your organizational data here (or use the button below the map). We hope to use this Geo-Map in the future to create opportunities between PCBH clinics for support, research and other activities that could benefit you!

Click on an Icon to view information about each site.

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Anthony LeonPractice Network

PCBH Training Hub

PCBH Training Hub

Train the Trainer Academy

Provider Credentialing

Telehealth

  • Space to link clinicians/systems/clinics with PCBH trainers, TA providers and/or PCBH practices in order to assist the development of new or improved PCBH services
  • Create a learning collaborative among interested clinics/systems in the Practice Network.
  • Provide clinical training
  • Provide operational training
  • Provide Tele-PCBH training
  • Include the training videos
  • Train-the-trainer academy certification
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Anthony LeonPCBH Training Hub

Primary Care Behavioral Health

Improving primary care by transforming, optimizing, and promoting quality integrated behavioral healthcare.

The Primary Care Behavioral Health Model

The Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) model is a team-based primary care approach to managing behavioral health problems and biopsychosocially-influenced health conditions. The model’s main goal is to enhance the primary care team’s ability to manage and treat such problems/conditions, with resulting improvements in primary care services for the entire clinic population. The model incorporates into the primary care team a behavioral health consultant (BHC), sometimes referred to as a behavioral health clinician, to extend and support the primary care provider (PCP) and team. The BHC works as a generalist and an educator who provides high volume services that are accessible, team-based, and a routine part of primary care.

Behavioral Health Consultant/Clinician’s Role

Features of the Behavioral Health Consultant’s role can be summarized using the acronym GATHER: Generalist, Accessible, Team-based, High volume, Educator, and Routine.

Generalist

BHC assists in the care of patients of any age and with any health condition influenced by behavior.

Accessible

BHC strives for on-demand accessibility for patients and care team.

Team-based

BHC shares clinic space/resources and assists the team in various ways.

High Volume

BHC aims for high patient volume to support population health management.

Educator

BHC teaches behavior change and resilience strategies to the team.

Routine

BHC operates as a regular part of healthcare.

To accomplish these goals, BHCs use focused (typically 15-30 minute) visits to assist with specific symptoms or functional improvement. Follow-up is based in a consultant approach in which patients are followed by the BHC and PCP until functioning or symptoms begin improving; at that point, the PCP resumes sole oversight of care but re-engages the BHC at any time, as needed. Patients not improving are referred to specialty care, though if that is not possible, the BHC may continue to assist until improvements are noted. This consultant approach also aims to improve the primary care team’s biopsychosocial management of health conditions in general with the goal of better care for the whole clinic population.

Anthony LeonPrimary Care Behavioral Health
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